The Radetsky March by Joseph Roth

November 12, 2016 Leave a comment Go to comments

The Radetsky March by Joseph Roth (1932) French title: La marche de Radestky. Translated by Blanche Gidon and reviewed by Alain Huriot.

roth_radetskyThe Radestky March is the second book by Joseph Roth that I’ve read. (My billet about Hotel Savoy is here.) It was published in 1932 and it’s famous for describing the fall of the Austro-Hungarian empire. Roth was Austrian and I think that Embers by Sándor Márai is the Hungarian counterpart of Roth’s Radetsky March.

The book opens at the battle of Solferino where the Austrians fight against the French in 1859. France was ruled by Napoléon III at the time and it’s a victory for the French. The Austrian emperor Franz-Joseph I is on the battlefield and he’s about to do something stupid that could get him killed by a French sniper. Lieutenant Trotta sees it coming, throws the emperors to the ground and saves his life. Franz-Joseph ennobles Trotta who becomes Baron von Trotta and Sipolje, the small village he comes from. (Now in Kosovo). This distances Trotta from his family and his origins and pushes him to a social class where he feels he never belongs. It cuts this branch of the Trotta family from their roots.

Later, von Trotta discovers in a school text book how the story of the battle of Solferino is taught to the children. It is grossly embellished and he decides to appeal to the emperor to have the facts straightened up. But the emperor leaves it as it’s told, which disgusts von Trotta from the military. Therefore, he will not let his son go to military school and he makes him become a civil servant. The young M. von Trotta ends up prefect in the district of W, in Moravia. His short marriage gives him a son, Carl Joseph, who is actually the main character of the novel.

The Radetsky March is a remarkable book. From a literary point of view, it’s extremely well written. Roth describes the family relationships, the education in the military circles and the lack of warmth in this education. Prefect von Trotta loves Carl Joseph but he’s totally unable to show affection. And this is also a trait that Márai points out in Embers. Carl Joseph is enrolled to military school upon his father’s decision. His father never imagined to ask him what he wanted to do with his life. Carl Joseph is not cut out to be an officer as he has no military skills. He can’t ride a horse properly, he’s hopeless with topography and other military disciplines. He can’t choose his career. He has this cumbersome aura that prevent people from really befriending him. He feels awkward with his comrades and he has trouble bonding with people from his generation. He only becomes friend with older men and his lovers are almost mother figures. I won’t tell you too much about the plot and his life but poor Carl Joseph is not up to other people’s expectations. He’s incredibly lonely and he lives his life like a fish out of water.

The heritage of his grand-father weighs on his shoulders. He’s the grand-son of the hero of Solferino never just himself. And this inheritance burdens him with other people’s expectations. He’s the offspring of the hero of Solferino and there is a consensus that he inherited his grand-father’s courage. But his grand-father’s greatness was grossly exaggerated in text books that minded more of propaganda than of historical accuracy. So, Carl Joseph measures his actions against the shadow of a man who never really existed.

Le sous-lieutenant Trotta ressemblait à quelqu’un qui n’a pas seulement perdu son pays, mais aussi la nostalgie de son pays. The sub-lieutenant Trotta looked like someone who not only had lost his country but also the nostalgia of his country.

I pitied him for these heavy expectations and because he lacked the character and intelligence he would have needed either to rebel and choose his path or shine in the path that was chosen for him. In older French translations of books, European names are often translated and this edition of The Radestky March is no exception. As a consequence, Carl Joseph was Charles-Joseph for me. The more time I spent in Charles-Joseph’s company, the more I thought of Charles Bovary. The two men have something in common, both being pushed in a career for which they have no taste and no gift. They’re slow, they’re lonely and lack of social skills. They’re not bad people, just stupid.

The Radetsky March also portrays the decay the Austro-Hungarian empire. Roth describes very well the hypocrisy of the military circles. The military are drilled to respect rules, as stupid as they can be. They follow an honor code up to blindness and refuse to see the obvious. The army is disconnected from the world and unaware of the upcoming changes and challenges.

Ils étaient nés en temps de paix et ils étaient devenus officiers en s’adonnant paisiblement aux manœuvres et aux exercices. Ils ne savaient pas alors que chacun d’eux, sans exception, rencontrerait la mort quelques années plus tard. Aucun n’avait alors l’ouïe assez fine pour entendre tourner les rouages énormes des moulins secrets qui commençaient déjà à moudre la grande guerre. La blanche paix de l’hiver régnait dans la petite garnison. Et, comme une draperie noire et rouge, la mort flottait au-dessus de leurs têtes dans la pénombre de l’arrière-boutique. They were born in a time of peace and had become officers by peacefully devoting themselves to parade grounds and exercises. None of them suspected that they would die a few years later. None of them had keen hearing and heard the wheels of huge secret mills turning and already grinding the Great War. The white winter peace has settled on the small garrison. And, like a black and red drape, death was flying upon their heads in the dark corners of the back shop.

The officers do their routine, gamble and drink. They’re isolated and most of them don’t have a family. They keep to themselves. Roth makes fun of them and their blind respect to tradition and their propensity to fret about tiny details. The overall picture gives an idea of an army unfit for the upcoming battles.

The empire is also cracking under the demands for more rights for the minorities. It is a mosaic of people who no longer want to live together. Minorities push at the seams of the old imperial clothes and the old emperor Franz Joseph I sounds totally unfitted for his position. See what Roth puts in Chojnoki’s mouth, a Polish rich man who lives near Carl Joseph’s garrison:

Sceptique, moqueur, sans crainte et sans scrupules, Chojnicki affirmait communément que l’Empereur était un vieillard étourdi, le gouvernement une bande de crétins, le Reichsrat une assemblée d’imbéciles naïfs et pathétiques, il disait l’administration vénale, lâche et paresseuse. Les Autrichiens de souche germanique dansaient la valse et chantaient dans les guinguettes, les Hongrois puaient, les Tchèques étaient nés cireurs de bottes, les Ruthènes étaient des Russes travestis et des traîtres, les Croates et les Slovènes des fabricants de brosses et des marchands de marrons et les Polonais dont il était, des jolis cœurs, des coiffeurs et des photographes de mode. Skeptical, derisive, bold and unscrupulous, Chojnicki often said that the Emperor was a forgetful old man, the government, a bunch of cretins, the Reichsrat, an assembly of naïve and pathetic morons. He said that the administration was venal, weak and lazy. Austrians from German origins waltzed and sang in guinguettes, Hungarians stank, Czechs were born flatterers, Ukrainians were Russian in disguise and traitors, Croats and Slovenes were brush makers and chestnut sellers and Poles, as himself, were flirts, hairdressers and fashion photographs. 

Prefect von Trotta has no idea of how to deal with the nationalist upheavals in his district. The central power of the country doesn’t know what to do. The old emperor is cristallised in conservatism and lacks of political insight.

It is the end of the reign of Franz Joseph I who is a central character of the book. He’s the deus ex-machina of the novel. It’s a cheeky literary device, to use such a historical figure that way, but it works. The emperor puts in motion the change of social class of Trotta. He refuses to change the narration of the text books despite Trotta’s request. He will intervene several times when the von Trottas need him. The emperor is like a father figure to them.

Il [von Trotta] aimait l’Empereur qui était bon et grand, supérieur et juste, infiniment lointain et tout proche, particulièrement attaché aux officiers de son armée. Mourir pour lui aux accents d’une marche militaire était la plus belle des morts, mourir au son de la Marche de Radetzky était la plus facile des morts. He [voon Trotta] loved the emperor who was good and great, superior and fair, aloof and close, especially attached to the officers of his army. To die for him to the sound of a military march was the most beautiful death, to die to the sound of the Radetsky March was the easiest death of all.

Franz Joseph I had one of the longest reigns in Europe. He was in power from 1848 to 1916. I was in Vienna last September and there was an exhibition about him, sinc 2016 is the centenary of his death. It was explained that there are plenty of images of him since he had his portrait done at least once a year since his childhood. His mother groomed him to ground his power on a cult of personality. See a sample of these images.

00_images_franz-joseph_i

I thought that this exhibition was very complacent, only showing the good side of the man. I regretted that there was no attempt to put in perspective the decisions he made. After all, he was very conservative and probably made poor choices along the way, like everybody else. I was ill at ease in this exhibition, feeling too much blind praise and nostalgia in it and not enough critical mind at work. Here’s Roth about Vienna:

On voyait déambuler, dans la large Ringstrasse, les habitants de cette ville, joyeux sujets de Sa Majesté apostolique, tous laquais de sa cour. La ville tout entière n’était que la gigantesque cour du château. You could see the inhabitants of this city stroll on the large Ringstrasse. They are the happy subjects of His Apostolic Majesty, all lackeys of the court. The whole town was actually the gigantic courtyard of the castle.

There was a cult around the Habsburg family and I’m not sure it’s deserved. This was my second visit to Vienna and my impression of the city center is that it still participates to the cult of the Habsburg family. In the comments written in the museums, in St Stephen cathedral, I felt an unhealthy nostalgia for lost grandeur. When in London, I didn’t have the impression that the city was turned into a museum longing for the Victorian era. In Vienna, even my children got sick of hearing about the wonderful Sissi and the great Maria Theresa. I loved that Joseph Roth didn’t follow this line of thinking. He is irreverent and critical, maybe because he was an outsider, as a Jew from Galicia.

The Radetsky March is a wonderful read for its literary merits (not obvious in this billet since I had to translate the quotes), for its humor, for its characterization and its insight on the Austro-Hungarian empire. A must read to understand Europe’s past and if possible to be coupled with Márai’s Embers.

2016_german_lit_monthThis billet about The Radetsky March is my contribution to Caroline and Lizzy’s German Literature Month. Incidentally, November is the month to celebrate the end of WWI and Franz-Joseph I died on November 21st, 2016.

 

 

  1. November 12, 2016 at 5:51 pm

    Wonderful review, Emma and I’m so glad you liked this. I remember you were not so keen on Hotel Savoy. I liked it but this one is superior. I would say it’s one of the must reads of European literature. I didn’t get the same impression about Vienna as you did but maybe because I skipped some places this time and was in quarters where tourists normally don’t go.

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    • November 12, 2016 at 6:15 pm

      Thanks Caroline. I liked Hotel Savoy but I prefered this one.
      I’m sure that the quarters Vienna where “real” people live have a different vibe than the touristic places.
      The touristic areas we visited in Austria (and not only in Vienna) were not objective at all where the Hapsburgs were concerned.
      The explanations written in St Stephen’s cathedral in Vienna were particularly shocking.

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      • November 13, 2016 at 8:06 am

        I didn’t go there this time. I believe what you are saying, and the Sissi cult, that can’t be overlooked.

        Like

  2. November 12, 2016 at 5:57 pm

    I’m fascinated by the fall of the Austro-Hungarian empire. Funnily enough I just watched a (terrible) film called Bathory-an interpretation of the life of the Countess Bathory who, legend has it, murdered young women and bathed in their blood. The rise of the Hapsburgs is on the horizon in that film.
    I have this one. Need to read it…

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    • November 12, 2016 at 6:16 pm

      You’ll like The Radetsky March and probably Embers too.

      Like

      • November 12, 2016 at 6:32 pm

        I didn’t like Embers that much. I thought it was ok no more than that

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        • November 12, 2016 at 6:38 pm

          In Embers, the characters are more radical in their feelings that poor Charles-Joseph von Trotta. (It’s stupid but I had problems with his name. Charles-Joseph von Trotta. Reminded me of Charles Bovary, as I said in my billet but “trotta” means “trotted” and the man couldn’t ride a horse properly. Plus there’s a children cartoon in France named “l’âne Trotro” and in French, calling someone a donkey is saying they’re stupid, which fit poor von Trotta.)
          I think Embers is fascinating for its description of the Austro-Hungarian military and small nobility. The hatred nurtured by the characters is sometimes a bit too much. What bothered you in it?

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          • November 13, 2016 at 12:05 am

            From memory, and I didn’t think the book was memorable: a bit slow and a much ado about nothing

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  3. November 12, 2016 at 6:01 pm

    You know I’m a bit prejudiced when it comes to Vienna, but I would agree in part with your analysis of the cult of the Hapsburgs. Although I would also add the Sachertorte, Fiaker and Mozartkugeln to this, or Klimt – it’s all about what appeals to the tourists. I do find a lot of Royal Family related stuff in London too, which does not enthral me. More generally, however, there is a lot that the average Austrian has not digested yet about their past (they’ve tended to blame the Germans for everything), so thank goodness for books by Joseph Roth or the book I recently read by Robert Seethaler or others like that to show the darker side of the Empire and its aftermath.

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    • November 12, 2016 at 6:24 pm

      I know you’re prejudiced and I understand why. I’d probably feel the same if I were in your shoes.

      There are a lot of Royal family related stuff in London, and it’s normal, it’s a huge part of the country’s history. But the museum in the Tower of London or in Hampton Court are more objective than what I’ve seen in Vienna. They don’t try to persuade you that the royal family is living in the world of The Care Bears. In the Austrian museums I visited, I don’t remember reading about an unfaithfull emperor or about Sissi’s Hungarian lover. The history told on the Budapest side is different. It made me question what I was reading and I expected more impartiality.

      As you said it, it left me with the impression that the fall of the empire was not digested yet. I’m going to read your Seethaler review.
      Thank God there is Thomas Bernhard…

      Liked by 1 person

  4. November 13, 2016 at 4:17 am

    This is excellent, Emma, and I like the way you’ve brought the discussion into the present. Literature does that so often, eh?

    Like

    • November 13, 2016 at 7:58 am

      If you forget the historical context, there is the same question as in The Hands by Stephen Orr: how do you deal with your family’s history? How do you live up to your family line when they started something special, a farm, a successful military career? Can you escape what your parents expect of you, like take over the farm or be an officer?

      Like

      • November 13, 2016 at 9:23 am

        Yes, indeed, it’s an issue that is still relevant today…

        Like

  5. November 13, 2016 at 10:21 am

    Great review, Emma. It sounds like a multi-layered novel, one that works on a number of levels e.g. Carl Joseph’s story combined with the state of the nation elements. Roth’s Hotel Savoy is on my Classics Club list, so I probably start there. Assuming I like it (which I’m sure I will) then Radetzky will be next on my list.

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    • November 13, 2016 at 12:17 pm

      It is multi-layered like a novel by Philip Roth. I wonder if they come from the same family tree. Philip Roth’s father was from Galicia, like Joseph Roth.

      I’d be interested in reading your thoughts about The Radetsky March and about Carl Joseph.
      I plan to read the sequel.

      Like

  6. November 13, 2016 at 7:00 pm

    Ah, The Radetzky March by Joseph Roth really is an extraordinary novel – one of my all-time favourites that I also presented on my blog (»»» click here to read my review). It isn’t easy to do it justice in a review, but you definitely did a good job. Are you aware that with The Emperor’s Tomb Joseph Roth wrote a sequel to it leading up to Austria’s annexation to the German Third Reich? Not quite as convincing as The Radetzky March and yet an excellent short novel.

    I can assure yout that the “Habsburg-mania” that you noticed in Vienna is just for the tourists! The average Austrian doesn’t care one bit about the former royal family although we hold Sisi and Francis-Joseph I high in esteem for providing not few of us with quite a good living ;-). We also don’t bemoan the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy any longer… I fear that there may be more people longing to restore the Third Reich than the monarchy. Some never get wise, unfortunately.

    Like

    • November 14, 2016 at 2:19 pm

      I have the sequel at home and I hope to read it soon.
      Thanks for your opinion on the Habsbourg mania as an Austrian. There’s something to be done in the comments and signs in museums, then.
      We’ve been to the Sissi museum. Not a word about her affair with Count Andrássy, for example.
      Things were too smooth for my liking.
      I liked Graz a lot, btw.
      How is the presidential election going in Austria?

      Liked by 1 person

      • November 14, 2016 at 5:33 pm

        Well, the affair with Count Andrássy is a rumour that is extremely unlikely to ever have happened. According to all serious historians they just enjoyed each other’s company – no more, no less.

        The presidential elections – or should I call it the “Punch and Judy Show”? – are going rather smoothly. To be truthfully, most of us don’t pay attention to the campaign. We’re too tired of it all. The odds are that the turnout of voters will be low… I hope that I’m wrong because it would inevitably be to the advantage of the FPÖ candidate.

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        • November 15, 2016 at 6:12 pm

          French reflex I’m afraid: I have a hard time believing in platonic relationships like this. (same for the emperor and this actress whose name I don’t remember)

          I hope everybody will go and vote because extremists never forget to vote.

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          • December 19, 2016 at 7:16 pm

            Well, I reckon that you mean Katharina Schratt, but this relationship of Francis Joseph wasn’t platonic. And he had other affairs before and after… double moral standards.

            Liked by 1 person

            • December 20, 2016 at 8:57 pm

              Well in this exhibition, it was said that it was platonic…

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              • December 21, 2016 at 7:18 pm

                Did they? Well, probably nobody really knows for sure. In this case, however, I don’t believe in a platonic relationship although it was surely more than just sex. Katharina Schratt is “known” to have served Francis Joseph self-made ring cake when he came by 😉

                Like

              • December 23, 2016 at 9:05 am

                🙂

                Like

  7. November 13, 2016 at 9:11 pm

    The Radetzky March is a wonderful novel. It’s such a shame that Roth was so often beset with financial problems which had, at times, a detrimental effect on his work.

    Like

    • November 13, 2016 at 10:12 pm

      It is a wonderful novel, indeed. I loved his sense of humour and poor von Trotta lives his life in grey. I felt sorry for him but sometimes his naivete and his stupidity were hard to forgive.

      Like

  8. The Reading Life
    November 14, 2016 at 6:01 am

    About three years ago in read this novel and it set me to reading all of the translated Roth. I last read his recently assembled collection of essays,Hotel days which I greatly enjoyed. Your wonderful post helped me relive the book.

    Like

    • November 14, 2016 at 2:24 pm

      Which one is your favourite?

      Like

  9. November 14, 2016 at 6:04 am

    I first read this work about three years ago.it set me off reading all his translated to English works.i last read his assembled byMichael Hoffman collection of essays and greatly enjoyed the high intelligence of Roth. Thanks for your wonderful post

    Like

  10. November 15, 2016 at 5:49 pm

    A fantastic book. Very interesting reflections on your visits to Vienna as well. I’ve never been there: I would certainly like to, but I imagine it could strike one as a little like a film set.

    Like

    • November 15, 2016 at 6:09 pm

      It is a fantastic book. Have you read it? If yes, what about the sequel?

      You want to walk in a city and feel like you’re on a movie set? Go to the historical centre of Monaco. Buildings and streets are so clean they seem fake.
      Real life is messy. I don’t trust places and houses that are too clean 🙂

      Like

      • November 16, 2016 at 12:15 pm

        Yes, I read it a couple of years ago. I’d read Confessions of a Murderer a few years before that. I’d like to read more Roth but not sure where to go with him.

        Like

  11. November 18, 2016 at 8:13 pm

    Marvellous. It just sounds splendid, and the comparison with Charles Bovary sounds rather persuasive.

    I haven’t read this yet because I expect so much to like it. I loved Hotel Savoy (which I read pre-blog) and I’ve read a couple more Roth’s since, but not yet this because I’ve somehow rather built it up too much in my mind. Funny how that can happen.

    Anyway, clearly I need to get over that and re-read it, though since I have Embers I may try to read that first, and I’d like to revisit Hotel Savoy.

    On a perhaps related note, do you think you’ll try Banffy?

    Like

    • November 20, 2016 at 9:54 am

      You’d probably like this one, Max. It has it all: great prose, sense of humour, well-drafted characters and the vision of the end of a world.

      I’d love to read Banffy but it’s a trilogy and this has stopped me. So far. I’ve heard good things about it though.

      Like

  1. November 20, 2016 at 11:48 am

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